Volvo thesis sweden

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Volvo thesis sweden

Locking retractors[ edit ] The purpose of locking retractors is to provide the seated occupant the convenience of some free movement of the upper torso within the compartment, while providing a method of limiting this movement in the event of a crash.

Most modern seat belts are stowed on spring-loaded reels called "retractors" equipped with inertial locking mechanisms that stop the belt from extending off the reel during severe deceleration. There are two main types of inertial seat belt lock.

A webbing-sensitive lock is based on a centrifugal clutch activated by rapid acceleration of the strap webbing from the reel. The Volvo thesis sweden can be pulled from the reel only slowly and gradually, as when the occupant extends the belt to fasten it.

Volvo thesis sweden

A sudden rapid pull of the belt—as in a sudden braking or collision Volvo thesis sweden the reel to lock, restraining the occupant in position. A vehicle-sensitive lock is based on a pendulum swung away from its plumb position by rapid deceleration or rollover of the vehicle.

In the absence of rapid deceleration or rollover, the reel is unlocked and the belt strap may be pulled from the reel against the spring tension of the reel.

The vehicle occupant can move around with relative freedom while the spring tension of the reel keeps the belt taut against the occupant.

When the pendulum swings away from its normal plumb position due to sudden deceleration or rollover, a pawl is engaged, the reel locks and the strap restrains the belted occupant in position.

Dual-sensing locking retractors use both vehicle G-loading and webbing payout rate to initiate the locking mechanism. Pretensioners and webclamps[ edit ] Pyrotechnic pretensioner diagram Seatbelts in many newer vehicles are also equipped with "pretensioners" or "web clamps", or both.

Pretensioners preemptively tighten the belt to prevent the occupant from jerking forward in a crash. Mercedes-Benz first introduced pretensioners on the S-Class. In the event of a crash, a pretensioner will tighten the belt almost instantaneously. This reduces the motion of the occupant in a violent crash.

Like airbags, pretensioners are triggered by sensors in the car's body, and many pretensioners have used explosively expanding gas to drive a piston that retracts the belt. Pretensioners also lower the risk of "submarining", which occurs when a passenger slides forward under a loosely fitted seat belt.

Some systems also pre-emptively tighten the belt during fast accelerations and strong decelerations, even if no crash has happened.

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This has the advantage that it may help prevent the driver from sliding out of position during violent evasive maneuvers, which could cause loss of control of the vehicle. These pre-emptive safety systems may prevent some collisions from happening, as well as reducing injury in the event an actual collision occurs.

Webclamps clamp the webbing in the event of an accident, and limit the distance the webbing can spool out caused by the unused webbing tightening on the central drum of the mechanism.

These belts also often incorporate an energy management loop "rip stitching" in which a section of the webbing is looped and stitched with a special stitching.

The function of this is to "rip" at a predetermined load, which reduces the maximum force transmitted through the belt to the occupant during a violent collision, reducing injuries to the occupant.

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A study demonstrated that standard automotive three-point restraints fitted with pyrotechnic or electric pretensioners were not able to eliminate all interior passenger compartment head strikes in rollover test conditions.

When a crash occurs the bladder inflates with a gas to increase the area of the restraint contacting the occupant and also shortening the length of the restraint to tighten the belt around the occupant, improving the protection. The system supports the head during the crash better than a web only belt.

It also provides side impact protection. InFord began offering rear seat inflatable seat belts on a limited set of models, such as the Explorer and Flex.

InVolkswagen announced they had a functional passive seat belt. When driver side airbags became mandatory on all passenger vehicles in model yearmost manufacturers stopped equipping cars with automatic seat belts.

Once the door is closed and the car is started, the belt moves rearward along the track to its original position, thus securing the passenger. The lap belt must be fastened manually. Manual lap belt with automatic non-motorized shoulder belt—This system was used in American-market vehicles such as the Hyundai Excel and Volkswagen Jetta.

The shoulder belt is fixed to the aft upper corner of the vehicle door, and is not motorized. When the door is opened, the belts go from a fixed point in the middle of the car by the floor to retractors on the door. Passengers must slide into the car under the belts.

When the door closes, the seat belt retracts into the door. The belts have normal release buttons that are supposed to be used only in an emergency, but in practice are routinely used in the same manner as manual seat belt clasps.

Disadvantages[ edit ] Automatic belt systems generally offer inferior occupant crash protection. In such a scenario, the occupant may be thrown from the vehicle and suffer greater injury or death.

Two particular models included the Dodge Spirit and Plymouth Acclaim. Motorists who would normally wear seat belts must still fasten the manual lap belt, thus rendering redundant the automation of the shoulder Yohane Kachale (Malawi) on 24/Oct/ Verified Buyer.

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Volvo thesis sweden

At Volvo Cars, there are many ways to have an internship. In general, we promote engineering students in terms of thesis works, but we also offer a range of different types of internships in Sweden, Belgium, and China. Note that the Volvo Group cannot accept or handle any concepts, ideas or inventions sent to the Volvo Group by external parties.

Electromobility We are revolutionizing transportation with quiet and clean infrastructure and electric vehicles. THE HIGHS. Those who think that Outboard Marine Corporation was an unwieldy, uncoordinated and ineffective behemoth should really think again.

When they were focused and resolutely on their game (and the s were undoubtedly their glory period), nobody could match them.

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