The ancient Greeks affected the western civilizations math, government, sports, and medicine.
With the exception of the Heroic Age, each succeeding age was worse than the one that went before. Hesiod maintains that during the Golden Age, before the invention of the arts, the earth produced food in such abundance that there was no need for agriculture: When they died, it was as though they were overcome with sleep, and they had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced bare them fruit abundantly and without stint.
They dwelt in ease and peace. The Roman poet Ovid simplified the concept by reducing the number of Ages to four: Gold, Bronze, Silver, and Iron.
For this, Zeus punished Prometheus by chaining him to a rock in the Caucasuswhere an eagle eternally ate at his liver. The gods had entrusted Pandora with a box that she was forbidden to open; however, her uncontrollable curiosity got the better of her and she opened the box, thereby unleashing all manner of evil into the world.
The Orphic schoola mystery cult that originated in Thrace and spread to Greece in the 5th century BCE, held similar beliefs about the early days of man, likewise denominating the ages with metals. In common with the many other mystery cults prevalent in the Graeco-Roman world and their Indo-European religious antecedentsthe world view of Orphism was cyclical.
Orphics sometimes identified the Golden Age with the era of the god Phaneswho was regent over the Olympus before Cronus. In classical mythology however, the Golden Age was associated with the reign of Saturn. In the 5th century BCE, the philosopher Empedocleslike Hesiod before him, emphasized the idea of primordial innocence and harmony in all of nature, including human society, from which he maintained there had been a steady deterioration until the present.
Arcadia[ edit ] A tradition arose in Greece that the site of the original Golden Age had been Arcadiaan impoverished rural area of Greece where the herdsmen still lived on acorns and where the goat-footed god Pan had his home among the poplars on Mount Maenalus.
However, in the 3rd century BCE, the Greek poet, Theocrituswriting in Alexandriaset his pastoral poetry in on the lushly fertile island of Sicily, where he had been born.
Sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes; c. The Golden Age in Rome: Virgil and Ovid[ edit ] Writing in Latin during the turbulent period of revolutionary change at the end of the Roman Republic roughly between 44 and 38 BCEthe poet Virgil moved the setting for his pastoral imitations of Theocritus back to an idealized Arcadia in Greece, thus initiating a rich and resonant tradition in subsequent European literature.
Virgil, moreover, introduced into his poetry the element of political allegory, which had been largely absent in Theocritus, even intimating in his fourth Eclogue that a new Golden Age of peace and justice was about to return: Ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas; magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo: Although Virgil does not mention the Golden Age by name in the Georgics, he does refer in them to a time of primitive communism before the reign of Jupiterwhen: Fields knew no taming hand of husbandmen To mark the plain or mete with boundary-line.
Even this was impious; for the common stock They gathered, and the earth of her own will All things more freely, no man bidding, bore. And, with a native bent, did good pursue. His words were simple, and his soul sincere; Needless was written law, where none opprest: The law of Man was written in his breast.In Ancient Greece, the great heights that were reached in education, technology, and government led them to their Golden Age.
Included in the vast education of Greece were philosophy and literature.
Socrates was one of the most famous philosophers of that time. The Golden Age (Athens) Essay, Research Paper. A & # ; Golden Age & # ; for Athens?
The fifth century BCE was a period of great development in Ancient Greece, and specifically in Athens. The Golden Age of Greece Greece is a country with an abundant history more commonly known as the Golden Age of Greece or the Iron Age.
The Iron Age began in the year BCE in Athens. We will write a custom essay sample on Golden Age of Athens versus Reformation in Ancient Western Civilization specifically for you for only $ $/page Order now. The Golden Age of Athens, the Age of Pericles, and Pentekontaetia are all names for the time period when Athens reached its height of power and prosperity.
It began in B.C. and lasted for approximately fifty years until B.C. The Golden Age in Europe: Greece The In his famous essay, "Et in Arcadia ego: Poussin and the Elegiac Tradition", Erwin Panofsky remarks how in ancient times, "that particular not overly opulent, region of central Greece, Arcady.