Saul McLeodupdated Lab Experiment This type of experiment is conducted in a well-controlled environment — not necessarily a laboratory — and therefore accurate and objective measurements are possible. The researcher decides where the experiment will take place, at what time, with which participants, in what circumstances and using a standardized procedure. Further Information Field Experiment These are conducted in the everyday i. The experimenter still manipulates the IV, but in a real-life setting so cannot really control extraneous variables.
All behaviors are learnt from our environment.
Focus on observable behavior behavior that can be seen. Animals and humans learn in the same ways so behaviorists carry out experiments on animals and extrapolate the results to humans. Psychology should be scientific and objective therefore behaviorists use mainly laboratory experiments to achieve this.
Pavlov showed that dogs could be conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell if that sound was repeatedly presented at the same time that they were given food.
First the dogs were presented with the food, they salivated. The food was the unconditioned stimulus and salivation was an unconditioned innate response. Then Pavlov sounded the bell neutral stimulus before giving the food.
After a few pairings the dogs salivated when they heard the bell even when no food was given. The bell had become the conditioned stimulus and salivation had become the conditioned response.
The dogs had learnt to associate the bell with the food and the sound of the bell and salivation was triggered by the sound of the bell.
When humans and animals act on and in their environment consequences follow these behaviors. If the consequences are pleasant they repeat the behavior but if the consequences are unpleasant they do not repeat the behavior. For example being grounded for not doing your psychology homework.
Every time he activated the lever a food pellet fell in the food dispenser positive reinforcement. The rats quickly learnt to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box This suggests that positive reinforcement increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated.
In another experiment, a rat was placed in a cage in which they were subjected to an uncomfortable electrical current see diagram above as he moved around the cage the rat hit the lever, this immediately switched off the electrical current negative reinforcement.
The rats quickly learnt to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. This suggests that negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated.
Applications Behaviorism has increased our understanding of the causes of phobias and attachment. It has also given rise to therapies such as systematic desensitisation and token economy.
Evaluation AO3 Behaviorism has experimental support: Pavlov showed that classical conditioning leads to learning by association. It introduced the scientific methods to psychology. Laboratory experiments were used with high control of extraneous variables. This gave psychology more credibility.
Many of the experiments carried out were done on animals; we are different cognitively and physiologically, humans have different social norms and moral values these mediate the effects of the environment therefore we might behave differently from animals so the laws and principles derived from these experiments might apply more to animals than to humans.
It has practical applications for example systematic desensitisation based on classical conditioning is used in the treatment of phobias.
Classical and operant conditioning have also been used to explain attachment.
It does not explain important aspects of human behavior such as memory and problem solving as these are internal mental events which cannot be observed. It does not take into account biological factors such as the role of neurotransmitters, for example a low level of serotonin can give rise to depression or high level of dopamine is involved in OCD.
It sees people as passive in their learning with little conscious thoughts influencing their behavior; other approaches recognise the importance of mental events in the learning process. It neglects the influence of free will as it argues that our behavior is the result of previous conditioning.
Skinner argues that free will is an illusion. Social Learning Theory AO1 Bandura agreed with the behaviorists that behavior is learnt through experience however he proposed a different mechanism than conditioning.
This theory focuses not only on the behavior itself but also on the mental processes involved in learning so it is not a pure behaviorist theory.
The individual needs to pay attention to the behavior and its consequences and form a mental representation of the behavior. Storing the observed behavior in LTM where it can stay for a long period of time. Imitation is not always immediate. The individual must be able have the ability and skills to reproduce the observed behavior.
Individuals must expect to receive the same positive reinforcements vicarious reinforcement for imitating the observed behavior that they have seen the model receiving. Imitation is more likely to occur if the model the person who performs the behavior is positively reinforced.Peer review is the process of subjecting a piece of research to independent scrutiny by other psychologists working in a similar field who consider the research in terms of its validity, significance and originality.
0 marks for 'other psychologists look at the research'. Running head: RESEARCH METHODS PAPER 5 In a recent review article, Smith, Roberts, and Henderson () examined various physiological changes that can result in humans following alcohol consumption.
Past papers, mark schemes and examiners' reports for OCR A Level psychology, unit Approaches and research methods in psychology. Running head: RESEARCH METHODS PAPER 3 Sample Paper for Experimental Psychology On page three you begin your introduction section. First notice that this section is not labeled, rather it begins with the title of your paper centered on the first few lines.
Research methods used by the cognitive approach:(AO1) Laboratory experiments: These are the preferred method of investigation of the cognitive approach i.e. Loftus and Palmer () - . June - AQA A-Level Psychology Past Papers ( & ) Unit 1: Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology & Research Methods Download Past Paper - Unit 4: Approaches, Debates & Methods in Psychology -.